Data Services Products: EMC-NA13 North American mantle S velocity tomography model


NA13 is a 3-D tomography earth model that draws on 9331 waveforms from 252 regional earthquakes used for three-dimensional model NA07, an update of NA04.


Name NA13
Title North American mantle S velocity tomography model
Type 3-D Tomography Earth Model
Sub Type S velocity
Year 2021
Data Revision r0.0 (revision history)
Short Description   -dimensional model NA07 (Bedle and van der Lee, 2009), an update of NA04 (Van der Lee and Frederiksen, 2005). An additional 1255 waveforms from five earthquakes recorded by USArray’s Transportable Array in the western United States were used to refine knowledge of the western United States (Bedle, 2008) and are included in this inversion. Lou (2013) provides additional detail on stations, events, and delay time measurements.
Authors: Heather Bedle, School of Geosciences, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma

Xiaoting Lou, Now at Chevron, Houston, TX (Previously at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL)

Suzan van der Lee, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois
Previous Model NA07
Reference Model iasp91
Model Download (see metadata) in the Polar Stereographic Projection and in netCDF 3 Classic format.
Depth Coverage Mantle (70 to 1200 km)
Area North America (10°/85°, -170°/-55°)
Data Set Description [Bedle et al. ] a new comprehensive North American upper mantle seismic-tomographic model, NA13, was inferred from a combination of several decades of seismic data from early North American seismic models and USArray data, including data from previous models NA07 and NA04. NA13 inverts a combination of regional waveform misfits, teleseismic S delay times, and constraints on Moho depths. The joint inversion model combines different data set types, and demonstrates enhanced resolution over regional models created with a single geophysical dataset. Resolution in the upper mantle is achieved on the scale of ~100km, although travel time delay studies suggest that anomalies in parts of the western United States are smaller.

Horizontal slice
Horizontal depth slices for model NA13. Velocities are plotted throughout as a percent deviation from the iasp91 1D velocity model.

Citations and DOIs

To cite the original work behind this Earth model:

  • Bedle, Heather, Xiaoting Lou, and Suzan van der Lee (2021). High-resolution imaging of continental tectonics in the mantle beneath the United States, through the combination of USArray data sets. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (accepted).

To cite IRIS DMC Data Products effort:

  • Trabant, C., A. R. Hutko, M. Bahavar, R. Karstens, T. Ahern, and R. Aster (2012), Data Products at the IRIS DMC: Stepping Stones for Research and Other Applications, Seismological Research Letters, 83(5), 846–854,

DOI for this EMC webpage:


  • Lou, X. (2013). Inferred and Predicted Seismic Velocities of the North American Mantle. Ph.D. thesis. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
  • Van der Lee, S., and Andrew Frederiksen. 2005. Surface Wave tomography applied to the North American upper mantle, in AGU Monograph. Seismic Earth: Array Analysis of Broadband Seismograms, Eds: Levander A., and G. Nolet, 67-80.


  • r0.0 model provided by Suzan van der Lee and Heather Bedle.

Revision History

revision r0.0: uploaded October 12, 2021.





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