Summary
The following models are contributed to the IRIS EMC by various researchers. Linked model names point to a dedicated page for the model that provides model information and download links.
ANNOUNCEMENT: EMC Tools, a set of Python scripts for converting EMC’s netCDF Earth model files (netCDF 3 format) is now available.
Quicklinks
- How to contribute Earth models to EMC
- EMC home
- Reference Earth models
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- Compare Model Extents
- Model Summaries
- Earth model visualization
- Citations
- EMC-hosted Earth Models (71):
- Velocity Models (59):
- Africa (1)
Africa.ANT.Emry-etal.2018 (map) - East Asia (3)
FWEA18 (map)- Taiwan — 2:
Taiwan.TTT.KWR.2012 (map) | TW-PS-H14 (map)
- Taiwan — 2:
- Global (23):
3D2018_08Sv (map) |3D2017_09Sv (map) | 3D2016_09Sv (map) | CAM2016 (map)| GYPSUM (map) | HMSL-P06 (map) | HMSL-S06 (map) | LLNL-G3DV3 (map, information) | S2.9EA (map) | S362ANI (map) | S362ANI+M (map) | S362WMANI (map)| SAW24B16 (map)| SAW642AN (map) | SAW642ANB (map) | SEISGLOB1 (map)| SEISGLOB2 (map)| SEMum (map) | SGLOBE-rani (map)| SPani (map) | TX2000 (map)| TX2011 (map) | TX2019slab (map) - Western Eurasia, Arabia, and northern Africa (2):
EAV09 (map)- Anatolia and the Aegean Sea — 1
ANA2_P_2018 (map)
- Anatolia and the Aegean Sea — 1
- The Americas (30):
- North America — 4:
NA04 (map) | NA07 (map) | SAWum-NA2 (map)| SEMum_NA14 (map) - Contiguous US — 6:
DNA13 (map) | PnUS_2016 (map) | US.2016 (map) | US-Crust-Upper-mantle-Vs.Porter.Liu.Holt.2015 (map) | US-SL-2014 (map) |US-CrustVs-2015 (map) - Alaska — 2:
Alaska.ANT+RF.Ward.2018 (map) | Alaska-S+SW-2018 (map) - Regional/Local US — 13:
Cascade.ANT.Gao-Shen.2014 (map)|Cascadia_ANT+RF_Delph2018 (map) |DNA09 (map) | DNA10-S (map) |NEUS-Vs2018 (map)| NWUS11-P (map) | NWUS11-S (map) | OIINK_VS_model (map) | PNW10-S (map) | SoCal.ANT_Vph+HV-1.Berg.2018 (map)| WUS-CAMH-2015 (map) | wUS-SH-2010 (map) | YS-P-H15 (map) - South America — 5:
Andes.ANT.Ward.2013 (map) | APVC.ANT+RF.Ward.2014 (map) | APVC+Puna.ANT+RF.Ward.2017 (map) | BO.ANT+TPWT.Ward.2016 (map) | SAM4_P_2017 (map)
- North America — 4:
- Africa (1)
- Crustal Thicknesses (3):
Crustal_Thickness_Error (map) | NorthernAppalachians_Moho2018 (map) | OIINK_CUS_Moho2017 (map) - Electrical Resistivity/Conductivity (7):
GlobalEM-2015-02×02 (map)|GlobalEM-2009-10×10 (map)|iMUSH-MT (map) | MCR.MT.Yang-et.al.2015.resistivity (map) |MHCB-MT (map) | SEUS-MT (map)| SRPY-MT (map) - Q-Model (1):
QRLW8 (map) - Temperature Model (1):
Moho_Temperature (map)
- Velocity Models (59):
- EMC-hosted 2D Earth Models:
- Crustal Thicknesses:
CAM2016 (map) | Crustal_Thickness_Error (map) | NorthernAppalachians_Moho2018 (map) | OIINK_CUS_Moho2017 (map) | US-CrustVs-2015 (map) - Temperature Model:
Moho_Temperature (map)
- Crustal Thicknesses:
Description
The following sections provide an insight into the extent and parameters of various Earth models available through IRIS EMC.
Compare Model Extents
To compare areal and depth coverage of different models and view the list of parameters they offer, select up to four models from lists below:
Model Summaries
MODEL | VARIABLE(s) | SUMMARY |
---|---|---|
3D2018_08Sv GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, Vs anomaly in % (-12.4% to 10.7%) az, Azimuthal Anisotropy fast axis direction in degrees(-90° to 90°) as, Peak to Peak Anisotropy in degrees (0.0% to 14.5%) |
3D2018_08Sv, Eric Debayle, Fabien Dubuffet, Stéphanie Durand, is the current update of the background model 3D2015_07Sv up to August 2018. It is based on the waveform modeling of 1,600,492 Rayleigh waves recorded between 1976 and August 2018. The tomographic model is built using the same automated scheme as background model presented in Debayle et al., GRL 2016. |
3D2017_09Sv GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, Vs anomaly in % (-11.9% to 10.9%) az, Azimuthal Anisotropy fast axis direction in degrees(-90° to 90°) as, Peak to Peak Anisotropy in degrees (0.0% to 14.9%) |
3D2017_09Sv, Eric Debayle, Fabien Dubuffet, Stéphanie Durand, is the Sv wave model of the upper mantle and transition zone based on the waveform modeling of 1,517,611 Rayleigh waves recorded between 1976 and September 2017. The use of approximate forward theory and modeling allows updating the model following the publication of the monthly CMT catalog. 3D2017_09Sv contains azimuthal anisotropy and achieves a lateral resolution of ~600 km in the upper mantle. |
3D2016_09Sv GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, Vs anomaly in % (-12.1% to 10.7%) az, Azimuthal Anisotropy fast axis direction in degrees (-90° to 90°) as, Peak to Peak Anisotropy in degrees (0.0% to 15.4%) |
3D2016_09Sv, Eric Debayle, Fabien Dubuffet, Stéphanie Durand, is the update of the background model 3D2015_10Sv up to September 2016. It is based on the waveform modeling of 1,434,738 Rayleigh waves recorded between 1976 and September 2016. |
Africa.ANT.Emry-etal.2018 Africa (map) |
Vs, Shear-wave velocity (3.03 to 5.89 km/s) |
Africa.ANT.Emry-etal.2018, Emry, Shen, Nyblade, Flinders, and Bao (2018), 3D shear-wave velocity model of Africa from full-wave ambient noise tomography . |
Alaska.ANT+RF.Ward.2018 Alaska, US (map) |
Vs, Shear-velocity (1.57 to 5.82 km/s) |
Alaska.ANT+RF.Ward.2018, Ward and Lin (2018), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the Alaskan Cordillera from the joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions. |
Alaska-S+SW-2018 Alaska, US (map) |
dVs, Shear-velocity perturbation (-19.85% to 16.05%) |
Alaska-S+SW-2018, Jiang, Schmandt, Ward, Lin, and Worthington (2018), 3D shear-wave velocity model of Alaskan upper mantle from the joint inversion of teleseismic S-wave travel-time residuals and Rayleigh wave dispersion. |
ANA2_P_2018 Anatolia and the Aegean Sea (map) |
dVp, P-wave velocity perturbation (-9.7% to 9.1%) hq, hit quality (0 to 1) |
ANA2_P_2018, Portner, Delph, Biryol, Beck, Zandt, Özacar, Sandvol & Türkelli (2018), is a regional finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography model for the Eastern Mediterranean. |
Andes.ANT.Ward.2013 SOUTH AMERICA: Central Andes (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (2.42 and 5.04 km/s) | Andes.ANT.Ward.2013, Ward, Zandt, Beck, Porter, Wagner, Minaya and Tavera (2013), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the Central Andes from ambient noise tomography. The model incorporates broadband seismic data from 20 seismic networks deployed incrementally in the Central Andes from 1994 May to 2012 August, to image the shear wave velocity structure of the South American Cordillera. |
APVC.ANT+RF.Ward.2014 SOUTH AMERICA: The Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (1.8 to 4.65 km/s) | APVC.ANT+RF.Ward.2014, Ward, Zandt, Beck, Christensen, and McFarlin (2014), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) from the joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions. |
APVC+Puna.ANT+RF.Ward.2017 SOUTH AMERICA: Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) and the Puna Plateau (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (1.61 to 5.28 km/s) | APVC+Puna.ANT+RF.Ward.2017, Ward, Delph, Zandt, Beck, and Ducea (2017), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC) and the Puna Plateau from the joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and receiver functions. |
BO.ANT+TPWT.Ward.2016 SOUTH AMERICA: The Bolivian Orocline (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (2.24 to 4.94 km/s) | BO.ANT+TPWT.Ward.2016, Ward, Zandt, Beck, Wagner and Tavera (2016), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the Bolivian Orocline (BO) from the joint inversion of ambient noise tomography and two-plane wave tomography. |
CAM2016 GLOBAL (map) |
Vsv, vertical component shear wave speed in km/s (3.94 to 6.15 km/s),dVsva, perturbation of the vertical component shear wave speed w/average model (amod) (-11.2 to 11.2 %),dVsvr, perturbation of the vertical component shear wave speed w/treference model (rmod) (-10.08 to 12.59 %),az, direction azimuthal anisotropy (-90 to 90 deg),azamp, peak-to-peak amplitude azimuthal anisotropy (0 to 12.1 %),Vsh, horizontal component shear wave speed (4.12 6.16 km/s,dVsha, perturbation of the horizontal component shear wave speed w/t average model (amod) (-9.80 to 10.08 %),dVshr, perturbation of the horizontal component shear wave speed w/treference model (rmod) (-9.91 to 9.95 %),twopidir, direction 2PI azimuthal anisotropy (-90 to 90),twopiamp, peak-to-peak amplitude 2PI azimuthal anisotropy (0 to 6.7 %),fourpidir, direction 4PI azimuthal anisotropy (-45 to 45),fourpiamp, peak-to-peak amplitude 4PI azimuthal anisotropy (0 to 5.6 %),xi, anisotropic parameter (0.91 to 1.2) | CAM2016, Priestley & Ho (2016), is a group of global upper mantle models based on multi-mode surface wave tomography. All models are defined on a 2 degree by 2 degree grid. Vsv and Vsh models are given for several lateral smoothing lengths. The models determined with the shorter smoothing length are applicable to the shallower depths while the models determined with the larger smoothing length are more appropriate to the deeper depths. |
Cascade.ANT.Gao-Shen.2014 The Cascades (map) |
Vs, shear-wave velocity (2.6 km/s to 5.5 km/s) | Cascade.ANT.Gao-Shen.2014, Gao and Shen (2014) , is based on a full-wave ambient noise tomographic method and the analysis of Rayleigh waves from ~1000 stations between 1995 to 2012, including the EarthScope USArray Transportable Array and many other permanent and flexible arrays. |
Cascadia_ANT+RF_Delph2018 The Cascades (map) |
Vs, shear-wave velocity (1.02 km/s to 5.86 km/s) | Cascadia_ANT+RF_Delph2018, Delph, Levander, and Niu (2018) , is a 3D vertical shear-wave velocity model of the Cascadian forearc from the joint inversion of ambient noise dispersion and receiver functions. |
Crustal_Thickness_Error crustal thicknesses Western US (map) |
thickness, crustal thickness in km (13 km to 59 km) error, crustal thickness error in km (0 km to 4.5 km) |
Crustal_Thickness_Error, Gilbert (2012), a model of crustal thicknesses values that are based on common conversion point (CCP) stacking of receiver functions calculated from data recorded by USArray stations and other permanent and temporary deployments in the western United States. |
DNA09 Northwestern US (map) |
dVp, P-wave velocity perturbation (-4.3% to 3.9%) dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-8.3% to 4.5%) |
DNA09, Obrebski, Allen, Xue & Hung (2010) , model is obtained through the body wave finite frequency tomographic inversion of the available EarthScope-USArray data recorded from January 2006 to July 2009. |
DNA10-S Northwestern US (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-7.0% to 10.1%) | DNA10-S, Obrebski, Allen, Pollitz & Hung (2011) , model integrates teleseismic body-wave traveltime and surface-wave phase velocity measurements into a single inversion to constrain the S-wave velocity structure beneath the western US. |
DNA13 Contiguous US (map) |
dVp, P-velocity in dVp (-1.6 to 1.8%) dVsh, SH-velocity in dVs (-5.4 to 4.1%) dVsv, SV-velocity in dVs (-3.9 to 3.2%) dVsvj, joint SV-velocity in dVs (-33.8 to 14.3%) |
DNA13, Porritt, Allen, & Pollitz (2014), model provides three independent body-wave derived estimates of the wave-speed for the continuous US. Teleseismic and ambient noise derived phase velocities are utilized in a joint inversion with the SV component body waves. |
EAV09 Western Eurasia, Arabia, and northern Africa (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (3.7 to 6.8 km/s) dVs, S-wave velocity perturbation w/t MEAN (-16% to 15%) |
EAV09, Chang & van der Lee (2010), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model for western Eurasia, Arabia, and northern Africa based on multiple data sets including regional S and Rayleigh waveform fits, fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group velocities, teleseismic S and SKS arrival times, and independent Moho constraints. |
FWEA18 East Asia (map) |
Vpv, Vertically Polarized P-wave Velocity in km/s (1.45 to 11.54 km/s) Vph, Horizontally Polarized P-wave Velocity in km/s (1.46 to 11.54 km/s) Vsv, Vertically Polarized S-wave Velocity in km/s (0.51 to 6.61 km/s) Vsh, Horizontally Polarized S-wave Velocity in km/s (0.52 to 6.61 km/s) ETA, Parameter related to the velocities at angles other than horizontal and vertical (0.87 to 1.05) QMU, shear wave quality factor (8.33 to 345.60) RHO, Density in g/cm^3 (0.86 to 4.53 g/cm^3) |
FWEA18, Tao, Grand and Niu (2018), radial anisotropy is confined to the uppermost mantle (above 220 km). 1D Qmu model is fixed to QL6 (Durek & Ekström, 1996). All velocities are at 1 Hz. |
GlobalEM-2015-02×02 electrical resistivity model, Global (map) |
sigma: log(10) electrical conductivity, in S/m with range -4.3 to 2.0 | GlobalEM-2015-02×02, Sun, Kelbert and Egbert (2015), high resolution global electrical conductivity variations in the Earth’s mantle based on ground observatory data. |
GlobalEM-2009-10×10 electrical resistivity model, Global (map) |
sigma: log(10) electrical conductivity, in S/m with range -2.6 to 5.0 | GlobalEM-2009-10×10, Kelbert, Schultz and Egbert (2009), global electromagnetic induction constraints on transition-zone water content variations. |
GYPSUM GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t an average of the TNA/SNA models (-7.1% to 6.2%) Vs, shear-wave velocity (3.0 km/s to 7.4 km/s) dVp, P-wave velocity perturbation w/t the 1-second, isotropic equivalent PREM (-10.7% to 7.2%) Vp, P-wave velocity (5.2 km/s to 13.8 km/s) |
GyPSuM, Simmons, Forte, Boschi & Grand (2010) , is a tomographic model of mantle seismic wave speeds developed through simultaneous inversion of seismic body wave travel times and geodynamic observations. |
HMSL-P06 GLOBAL (map) |
dVp, P-wave velocity perturbation (-5.7% to 4.8%) | HMSL-P06, Houser, Masters, Shearer & Laske (2008) , is an isotropic P velocity model with 18 layers (approximately 100 km thickness in the upper mantle and 200 km in the lower mantle) and 2578 blocks in each layer (approximately 4 degree equal area blocks at the equator). |
HMSL-S06 GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, S-wave velocity perturbation (-10.7% to 9.4%) | HMSL-S06, Houser, Masters, Shearer & Laske (2008) , is an isotropic shear velocity model with 18 layers (approximately 100 km thickness in the upper mantle and 200 km in the lower mantle) and 2578 blocks in each layer (approximately 4 degree equal area blocks at the equator). |
iMUSH-MT electrical resistivity model, Southwest Washington, United States(map) |
resistivity, Electrical resistivity in Log10(Ohm-m) from -3.0 to 6.0 | iMUSH-MT, Bedrosian, Peacock, Bowles-Martinez , Schultz, and Hill (2018), is a three-dimensional electrical resistivity model for southwest Washington centered upon Mount St. Helens. |
LLNL-G3DV3 GLOBAL (map) |
information | LLNL-G3Dv3, Simmons, Myers, Johannesson & Matzel (2012) , is a global-scale model of the crust and mantle P-wave velocity with regional-scale details. The model is parameterized using a spherical tessellation with node spacing of ~1 degree in the upper mantle and ~2 degrees in the lower mantle. |
MCR.MT.Yang-et.al.2015.resistivity electrical resistivity model The Midcontinent Rift (map) |
rho, electrical resistivity (-2.26 Ohm-m to 7.61 Ohm-m) | MCR.MT.Yang-et.al.2015.resistivity, Yang, Kelbert, Egbert & Meqbel (2015), is a 3D electrical resistivity model of the Midcontinent Rift recovered by inverting 222 magnetotelluric stations from EarthScope USArray dataset in Midcontinent Rift area, north-central USA. |
MHCB-MT electrical resistivity model, Missouri, United States(map) |
resistivity, Electrical resistivity in Ohm-m from 1e0 – 1e5 | MHCB-MT, DeLucia, Murphy, Marshak , and Egbert (2019), is a three-dimensional electrical resistivity Earth model for the Missouri high conductivity belt. |
Moho_Temperature Temperature at the base of the crust Western United States (map) |
temperature, temperature (244.2°C to 1167.3 °C) depth, base of the crust depth (20 km to 50.8 km) pn_velocity, Pn velocity (7.7 km/s to 8.3 km/s) temperature_uncertainty, temperature uncertainty (47.1°C to 126.7°C) |
Moho_Temperature, Schutt, Lowry and Buehler (2017), provides latitude, longitude, temperature (°C), depth, Pn Velocity, temperature uncertainty (°C) at the base of the crust for the western United States. |
NA04 North America (map) |
dVs, S-velocity anomalies in % w/t MC35 (-18.8% to 9.4%) Vs, S-velocity (3.7 km/s to 6.2 km/s) |
NA04, van der Lee and Frederiksen (2005) , is derived from inversion of the fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh waveforms using the Partitioned Waveform Inversion technique, Nolet (1990). The data set used includes waveforms from about 1400 regional seismograms recorded at North American digital broadband seismic stations (including the USArray Transportable Array waveforms). The NA04 3-D model is expressed as the velocity difference in m/s relative to the 1-D averaged Earth model MC35. |
NA07 North America (map) |
dVs, S-velocity anomalies in % w/t MC35 (-18.8% to 12.6%) Vs, S-velocity, range: 3.7 km/s to 6.2 km/s) |
NA07, Bedle and van der Lee (2009) , is based on the 3-D shear velocity model NA04 and the analysis of regional S and Rayleigh waveforms for earthquakes around North America from January 2000 through September 2006, including waveforms from the USArray Transportable Array stations. The NA07 3-D model is expressed as velocity difference in m/s relative to the 1-D averaged Earth model MC35. |
NEUS-Vs2018 Northeastern US (map) |
Vp, P-wave velocity in km/s (0.269 to 8.62) Vs, Shear-wave velocity in km/s (0 to 5.47 km/s) |
NEUS-Vs2018, Yand & Gao (2018), is a 3-D shear-wave isotropic model for the northeastern United States from full-wave ambient noise tomography with resolvable depths down to 120 km |
NorthernAppalachians_Moho2018 Moho depth Northeastern US (map) |
depth, Moho depth | Cong Li (2018), the Moho depths beneath the northern Appalachian Mountains were extracted from 5875 teleseismic P wave receiver functions using the common conversion point (CCP) stacking method. |
NWUS11-P Northwestern US (map) |
dVp, P-wave velocity perturbation (-3.4% to 3.6%) | NWUS11-P, James, Fouch, Carlson and Roth (2011), is a 3-D P-wave tomography model for the northwestern United States, James et al. (2011). The P-wave inversion for NWUS11-P is based on a total of 79,212 rays from 461 teleseismic events, with typical bandpass filter range of 0.5-1.5 Hz. The percent velocity perturbations reported by this model are insensitive to the starting 1-D reference model. |
NWUS11-S Northwestern US (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-9.3% to 5.6%) | NWUS11-S, James, Fouch, Carlson and Roth (2011), is a 3-D S-wave tomography model for the northwestern United States, James et al. (2011). The S-wave inversion is based on a total of 88,689 rays from 379 teleseismic events, with typical bandpass filter ranges of 0.04-0.15 Hz. The percent velocity perturbations reported by this model are insensitive to the starting 1-D reference model. |
OIINK_CUS_Moho2017 Central US & the footprint of the OIINK network, Moho depths and crystalline crustal thicknesses (map) |
thickness, crystalline crustal thickness depth, Moho depth |
OIINK_CUS_Moho2017, Yang et al. (2017), is a Moho depth and crystalline crustal thickness model within the central United States and the footprint of the OIINK network derived from receiver function observations |
OIINK_VS_model Central US (map) |
Vs, S-velocity (0 to 6.94 km/s) Vp, P-velocity (1.50 to 12.85 km/s) RHO, Density in g/cm^3 (1.0 tp 4.88 g/cm^3) |
OIINK_VS_model, Chen et al. (2016), is a shear wave velocity model derived from Rayleigh wave phase velocities recorded by the OIINK Flex Array and Transportable Array stations in the central United States. |
PnUS_2016 Contiguous US (map) |
Vp, Pn velocity in km/s (7.67 to 8.32 km/s) AnisMag, Pn anisotrpy in % (0.0024% to 8.9912%) AnisDir, Pn fast axis, degrees from north (0.139° to 180°) PnGrad, Vertical velocity gradient (-9.92e-5 to 9.89e-5) |
PnUS_2016, Buehler & Shearer, 2016, is a Pn tomography model for the contiguous United States. Model parameters include isotropic Pn velocity, anisotropy, vertical velocity gradient, and crustal thickness. |
PNW10-S US Pacific Northwest (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (31.3% to 15.8%) Vs, shear-wave velocity (1.8 km/s to 4.6 km/s) |
PNW10-S, Porritt, Allen, Boyarko , and M.R. Brudzinski (2011), combines the state of the art ambient noise tomography method with time tested analyst selection to ensure the highest quality data is used as input to the model inversion. Incorporating spatially and temporally long paths with this manual selection step allows recoverable structure from the surface to ~120km depth. This model focuses on the US Pacific Northwest to address a series of questions relating to variations in arc volcanism, seismicity, tremor activity, and the relation to subduction complex structure. |
QRLW8 Q model GLOBAL (map) |
dq, d(1/2Q)x1000 wrt the reference attenuation model QL6c.1D (-4.3 to 4.3) dqp, dln 1/Q, wrt the reference attenuation model QL6c.1D (-164.9 % to 165.2%) |
Gung and Romanowicz (2004) , a degree 8 3-D Q model of the upper mantlederived from three component surface waveform data in the period range of 60-400 seconds. Model is parameterized in spherical harmonics for lateral variations and cubic b-splines for depth dependence up to maximum spherical harmonics degree 16 horizontally for the SV-velocity model and 8 for the Q model with the use of 16 B-splines vertically (throughout the mantle). The velocity model is expressed as perturbations from the spherically symmetric model PREM. |
S2.9EA GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t STW105 (-16.1% to 9.1%) Vs, shear-wave velocity (3.8 km/s to 6.4 km/s) dVsv, Vertically Polarized shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t STW105 (-16.9% to 9.2%) Vsv, Vertically Polarized shear-wave velocity(3.8 km/s to 6.4 km/s) dVsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t STW105 (-15.8% to 9.7%) Vsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity (3.8 km/s to 6.4) |
S2.9EA, Kustowski, Ekstrom and Dziewonski (2008A) , laterally parametrize the upper-mantle structure beneath Eurasia using spherical splines with ˜2.9° spacing in Eurasia and ˜11.5° spacing elsewhere. The model is obtained from a combined data set of surface wave phase velocities, long-period waveforms and body-wave traveltimes. The 1-D reference model is STW105. |
S362ANI GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbations w/t STW105 (-8.2% to 8.2%) Vs, Isotropic shear-wave velocity (4.2 km/s to 7.4 km/s) dVsv, Vertically Polarized shear-wave velocity perturbations w/t STW105 (-8.6% to 8.8%) Vsv, Vertically Polarized shear-wave velocity (4.1 km/s to 7.4 km/s) dVsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity perturbations w/t STW105 (-8.5% to 8.4%) Vsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity (4.2 km/s to 7.4 km/s) |
S362ANI, Kustowski, Ekstrom and Dziewonski (2008) , has its radial anisotropy confined to the uppermost mantle (that is, since the anisotropy is parameterized with only the four uppermost splines, it becomes very small below a depth of 250 km, and vanishes at 410 km). The 1-D reference model is STW105. |
S362ANI+M GLOBAL (map) |
Vs, Isotropic (Voigt) Shear Velocity (4.2 km/s to 7.4 km/s) Vsv, Vertically Polarized Shear Velocity (4.1 km/s to 7.4 km/s) Vsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity (4.2 km/s to 7.4 km/s) |
Moulik and Ekstrom (2014), is an update to S362ANI and S362WMANI representing an anisotropic shear velocity model of the Earth’s mantle using normal modes, body waves, surface waves and long-period waveforms. |
S362WMANI GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-8.5% to 8.2%) Vs, shear-wave velocity (4.2 km/s to 7.4 km/s) dVsv, Vertically Polarized shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t to STW105, range -8.9% to 8.3%) Vsv, Vertically Polarized shear-wave velocity (4.1 km/s to 7.4 km/s) dVsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t to STW105 (-8.4% to 8.6%) Vsh, Horizontally Polarized shear-wave velocity (4.2 km/s to 7.5 km/s) |
S362WMANI, Kustowski, Ekstrom and Dziewonski (2008) , is a version of S362ANI with anisotropy allowed throughout the mantle. The 1-D reference model is STW105. |
SAM4_P_2017 SOUTH AMERICA: Central Chile and Argentina (map) |
dVp, P-wave velocity perturbation (-7.5% to 10%) hq, hit quality (0 to 1) |
SAM4_P_2017, Portner, Beck, Zandt & Scire (2017), is a regional finite-frequency teleseismic P-wave tomography model for central Chile and Argentina. It uses relative arrival time residuals from 678 earthquakes recorded at 394 stations of a variety of temporary and permanent seismic deployments in Chile and Argentina. |
SAW24B16 GLOBAL (map) |
dVsh, shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t PREM (-6.6% to 7.2%) Vsh, shear-wave velocity (4.1 km/s to 7.5 km/s) |
SAW24B16, Megnin and Romanowicz. 2000, is a 3-D shear velocity structure of mantle based on the inversion of body, surface, and higher mode waveforms, Megnin and Romanowicz (2000). The model was derived from handpicked transverse component waveforms and is parameterized laterally in spherical harmonics up to degree 24 (Edmonds normalization) and radially in 16 unevenly spaced splines. The SAW24B16 model is expressed as the percent perturbation from PREM. |
SAW642AN GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, Isotropic shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t PREM500 (-8.2% to 9.0% XI, anisotropic parameter (-11.0 to 12.1) Vs, S-wave velocity (0 km/s to 7.6 km/s) Vp, P-wave velocity (6.5 km/s to 14.0 km/s) RHO, rho density (2821.1 kg/m**3 to 9903.6 kg/m**3) Qs, shear Q (0.0 to 355.0) |
SAW642AN, Panning and Romanowicz (2006) , is a radially anisotropic shear velocity model, parameterized in terms of isotropic S velocity (Voigt average) and the anisotropic parameter, xi (V ^{2} _{sh} /V ^{2} _{sv}). Model values are percent perturbation relative to the anisotropic reference model PREM500. |
SAW642ANB GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, Isotropic shear-wave velocity perturbation w/t PREM500 (-12.5% to 13.6%) XI, anisotropic parameter (-9.7 to 16.7) Vs, S-wave velocity (0 km/s to 7.6 km/s) Vp, P-wave velocity (6.4 km/s to 14.0 km/s) |
SAW642ANB, Panning, Lekic and Romanowicz (2010) , is a radially anisotropic shear velocity model of the mantel, parameterized in terms of isotropic S velocity (Voigt average) and the anisotropic parameter, xi (V ^{2} _{sh} /V ^{2} _{sv}). The waveform data used for this model consist of 3-component broad-band surface waveforms (short period corner of 80 seconds and cutoff of 60 seconds) as well as body waveforms (short period corner of 40 s and cutoff of 32 s). The spatial parameterization of the model is the same as SAW642AN, with 16 variably spaced cubic b-splines with depth, and level 4 spherical splines laterally. Model values are percent perturbation relative to the anisotropic reference model PREM500. |
SAWum-NA2 North America (map) |
Vs, shear-wave velocity (4.0 km/s to 5.6 km/s) Az, anisotropy fast axis direction (-89.1° to 89.2°) G, anisotropy strength (0.02% to 4.1%) XI, radial anisotropy (Vsh/Vsv) ^{2} (0.9 to 1.1) |
SAWum-NA2, Yuan and Romanowicz (2011), North American regional shear velocity model is an isotropic and radially and azimuthally anisotropic Vs model for the North American upper mantle. The isotropic and radial anisotropic portion of the model is developed using long period 3-component fundamental and overtone surface waveforms in the frame work of the Non-linear normal Mode Asymptotic Coupling Theory (Li and Romanowicz, 1995;1996). A joint inversion of surface waveforms and SKS station average datasets is used in the azimuthal anisotropy inversion. |
SEISGLOB1 Global (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-7.5% to 8.3%) | SEISGLOB1, Durand, Debayle, Ricard, & Lambotte, is a pure Sv tomographic model based on the joint inversion of Rayleigh surface wave phase velocity perturbations and splitting and coupling coefficients of normal modes. |
SEISGLOB2 Global (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-4.9% to 4.2%) | SEISGLOB2, Durand, Debayle, Ricard, Zaroli, & Lambotte (2017), SEISGLOB2 is a global shear velocity tomographic model based on the joint inversion of S SS and ScS delay tomes, Rayleigh surface wave phase velocity perturbations and splitting and coupling coefficients of normal modes. |
SEMum Global (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-10.2% to 9.4%) Vs, isotropic shear-wave velocity (4.0 km/s to 7.9 km/s) XI, anisotropic Parameter (1.0 to 1.1) |
SEMum, Lekic & Romanowicz (2011), is a radially anisotropic shear velocity model, parametrized in terms of isotropic S velocity (Voigt average) and the anisotropic parameter, xi (V _{sh} ^{2} /V _{sv} ^{2} ). The Vs (xi) model is parametrized in terms of 2562 (642) spherical splines laterally, and 16 irregularly spaced cubic b-splines radially. |
SEMum_NA14 North America (map) |
Vs, isotropic shear-wave velocity (4.0 km/s to 5.1 km/s) Xi, anisotropic Parameter (1.0 to 1.1) |
SEMum_NA14, Yuan, French, Cupillard, and Romanowicz (2014), is an isotropic and radially anisotropic Vs model for the North American upper mantle which took advantage of the USArray TA deployment. |
SEUS-MT electrical resistivity model Southeastern US (map) |
rho, electrical resistivit (range 10 ^{0} Ohm-m to 10 ^{4} Ohm-m) | Benjamin S. Murphy and G.D. Egbert (2017), a three-dimensional electrical resistivity model for the southeastern United States. Inverse solution was found using ModEM. |
SGLOBE-rani GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, S-velocity in % (-20% to 14 %) dXi, Radial anisotropy in % (-39% to 15%) Xi, Radial anisotropy in (SH/SV) ^{2} (0.67 to 1.27) |
SGLOBE-rani, Chang & Ferreira (2015), is a global radially anisotropic shear wave speed model with radial anisotropy allowed in the whole mantle. It is based on a seismic data set of over 43M seismic surface wave (fundamental and overtones) and body wave measurements. |
SoCal.ANT_Vph+HV-1.Berg.2018 Southern California (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (0.66km/s to 5.18 km/s) | SoCal.ANT_Vph+HV-1.Berg.2018, Berg, Lin, Allam, Qiu, Shen, & Ben-Zion (2018), is a 3D shear-wave velocity model of Southern California from joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase velocity from ambient noise cross-correlations. |
SPani GLOBAL (map) |
dlnVp, Velocity variation in percent (-6.32% to 6.30%) dlnVs, Velocity variation in percent (-16.7% tp 10.3 %) Vp, P-velocity in km/s (6.76 km/s to 13.80 km/s) Vs, S-velocity in km/s (3.33 km/s to 7.38 km/s) XI, S-wave anisotropy (V ^{2} sv/V ^{2} sh) (0.88 to 1.32) PHI, P-wave anisotropy (V ^{2} pv/V ^{2} ph) (0.85 to 1.10) |
SPani, Tesoniero, Auer, Boschi, and Cammarano (2015), is a joint model of radially anisotropic P- and S-velocity variation of the whole mantle based on the inversion of fundamental Rayleigh and Love surface waves up to the sixth overtone and major P- and S-body wave phases. |
SRPY-MT electrical conductivity model Snake River Plain/Yellowstone (map) |
sigma, log10 σ [log(10) electrical conductivity] (-5.6 S/m to 1.4 S/m) | Kelbert, Egbert, and deGroot-Hedlin (2012), A 3-D regional electrical conductivity model of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Yellowstone/Snake River Plain volcanic province (Idaho and Wyoming, United States) based on magnetotelluric data. |
Taiwan.TTT.KWR.2012 Taiwan (map) |
Vp, P-wave velocity (1.6 km/s to 8.7 km/s) | Kuo-Chen, Wu and Roecker (2012), Is based on a travel-time tomographic method from active- and passive-source experiments of Taiwan Integrated Geodynamic Research (TAIGER) and other permanent seismic networks. Totally, ~2800 stations are used. Depth of coverage is 0 to 116 km (best resolution 0-60 km). |
TW-PS-H14 Taiwan (map) |
Vp, P-velocity in km/s dVp, dlnVp % dwsP, P derivative weight sum in dimensionless Vs, S-velocity in km/s dVs, dlnVs % dwsS, S derivative weight sum in dimensionless vpvs, Vp/Vs dvpvs, Vp/Vs perturbations |
THuang, Wu, Song, Chang, Lee, Chang, and Hsieh (2014), is a 3D P-wave and S-wave velocity model of Taiwan from joint inversion of P-wave and S-wave travel times, strong motion S-P times, and borehole logging data. |
TX2000 GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, Vs perturbation as deviation from layer mean (-8.8% to 6.7%) | TX2000 (also called Grand2000), Grand (2002) , refers here to the TXBW model to distinguish it from the TXBW Grand, van der Hilst and Widiyantoro (1997) model. The model is derived from the shear body wave travel times and aims at providing a more uniform global coverage of the mantle and more information on the upper-mantle seismic structure by using analysis of multibounce shear waves, core-reflected waves and SKS and SKKS waves that travel through the core. |
TX2011 GLOBAL (map) |
dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation (-7.6% to 6.1%) | TX2011, Grand, provides shear velocity perturbations with respect to the TX2011_ref reference model with the mean from the individual layers removed. The grid is not representative of the block size used in the inversion. The model assumes the crustal thickness is given by the Mooney, Laske and Masters crustal model, Mooney et al. (1998) , and thus velocity deviations in the upper most layer are with respect to a variable crustal thickness model. |
TX2019slab GLOBAL (map) |
dvp, P-wave Velocity Perturbation w/t AK-135 model-3.8% to 5.6%) dVs, Shear Velocity Perturbation w/t an average of the TNA/SNA models (-9.1% to 8.5%) |
TX2019slab, Lu, Grand, Lai, & Garnero, provides shear velocity perturbations with respect to the averaged TNA/SNA model and compressional velocity perturbations with respect to the AK-135f model with the mean from the individual layers removed. The grid is not representative of the block size used in the inversion. |
US.2016 Contiguous US (map) |
Vsv, Sv-velocity (0.28 km/s to 4.84 km/s Vp, P-velocity (1.47 km/s to 8.65 km/s) RHO, density (1.60 g/cm^3 to 3.50 g/cm^3) |
Shen & Ritzwoller (2016), a 3D shear-wave velocity model of the US from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion from ambient noise and earthquakes, Rayleigh wave H/V ratio, and receiver functions. |
US-Crust-Upper-mantle-Vs.Porter.Liu.Holt.2015 Contiguous US (map) |
Vs, shear velocity (0.6 km/s to 5.8 km/s) | The US-Crust-Upper-mantle-Vs.Porter.Liu.Holt.2015 model, Potter, Liu and Holt (2016), is based on the shear velocity inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocities calculated from ambient noise and wave-gradiometry measurements. |
US-SL-2014 Contiguous US (map) |
dVp, P velocity perturbation (-8.37% to 6.06%) dVs, S velocity perturbation (-20.64% to 7.74%) |
US-SL-2014 model, Schmandt & Lin (2014), is a P and S teleseismic body-wave tomography of the mantle beneath the United States. |
US-CrustVs-2015 Contiguous US (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (0.55 km/s to 4.96 km/s) | US-CrustVs-2015 model, Schmandt & Lin (2014), Crust thickness and Crust and Uppermost mantle Vs model for the contiguous U.S. |
WUS-CAMH-2015 Western US (map) |
Vs, S-velocity in km/s (0 km/s to 6.94 km/s) Vp, P-velocity in km/s (1.50 km/s to 12.85 km/s) RHO, Density in g/cm ^{3} (1.0 g/cm ^{3} to 4.88 g/cm ^{3}) |
The WUS-CAMH-2015 model, Chai, Ammon, Maceira and Herrmann (2015), is a shear velocity model that combines spatially interpolated/smoothed receiver functions, surface-wave dispersion and gravity observations through a 3D simultaneous inversion to image the subsurface S-wave velocity structure of the western U.S. region. |
wUS-SH-2010 Western US (map) |
dVp, compressional-wave velocity perturbation as % (-5% to 4.7%) dVs, shear-wave velocity perturbation as % (-14.0% to 8.82%) |
wUS-SH-2010, Schmandt and Humphreys. 2010a, is a teleseismic travel-time residuals from the EarthScope Transportable Array and more than 1700 additional stations are inverted for 3-D velocity perturbations. The inversion uses frequency-dependent 3-D sensitivity kernels to map travel-time residuals, measured in multiple frequency bands, into velocity structure. |
YS-P-H15 Yellowstone (map) |
Vp, P-velocity in km/s dVp, dlnVp % dws, Derivative weight sum in dimensionless |
YS-P-H15, Huang, Lin, Schmandt, Farrell, Smith, and Tsai (2015), A 3D P-wave velocity model of Yellowstone from joint inversion of local earthquake and teleseismic travel-time data. |
Citations and DOIs
To cite IRIS DMC Data Products effort:
- Trabant, C., A. R. Hutko, M. Bahavar, R. Karstens, T. Ahern, and R. Aster (2012), Data Products at the IRIS DMC: Stepping Stones for Research and Other Applications, Seismological Research Letters, 83(5), 846–854, https://doi.org/10.1785/0220120032.
To cite IRIS Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) data product or reference use of its repository:
- IRIS DMC (2011), Data Services Products: EMC, A repository of Earth models, https://doi.org/10.17611/DP/EMC.1.
To cite the source or reference the use of a particular Earth model hosted by EMC:
- Please click on the model of interest in the above list and click on the Citations under Quicklinks.
References
- Kelbert A., Egbert G.D., deGroot-Hedlin C. 2012. “Crust and upper mantle electrical conductivity beneath the Yellowstone Hotspot Track” Geology, v. 40, p. 447-450, https://doi.org/10.1130/G32655.1.
- Mooney, W.D., G. Laske, and G. Masters. 1998. “A global crustal model at 5×5 degrees.” J. Geophys. Res. 103:727-747.
- Nolet, Guust. 1990. “Partitioned waveform inversion and two-dimensional structure under the network of autonomously recording seis mographs.” J. Geophys. Res. 95:8499-8512.
Credits
- The research community for their contributions and product review
Timeline
- 2017-08-23
- online